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Question 1 - worth 13 marks
Table 3.1 presents the precipitation and evaporation data for a fictitious location called Azzoca Town.  From this data do the following:
  • Calculate the difference between precipitation (PRECIP) and potential evapotranspiration (PE) for the city listed below.  Record the plus or minus value for each moth.  January, February and June are already calculated.  Complete the remainder of the water-balance table.  (4 marks)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Precip 97 99 97 84 104 97 132 112 66 66 66 99
PE 7 8 24 57 97 132 150 133 99 55 12 7
Precip – PE +90 +91 +73 +27 +7 -35 -18 -21 -33 +11 +54 +92
Storage 100 100 100 100 100 65 47 26 0 11 65 100
Change in Storage 0 0 0 0 0 -35 -18 -21 -33 +11 +54 +35
AE 7 8 24 57 97 132 150 133 99 55 12 7
Deficit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0
Surplus 90 91 73 27 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 57
 
  • When does this city experience a net supply of water? List the months (2 marks)
January, February, March, April, May and December
  • When does this city experience a net demand for water? List the months (2 marks)
September
  • What occurs during the warm months from June through September (2 marks)
During the warm months, the potential evapotranspiration is more than precipitation, which means water losing faster than supplying. Therefore the storage cannot remain saturated and it starts to be extracted in June. This status retains in the following months. Finally, in September, the storage is out of stock and the Deficit shows a number of 7 in this month.
  • What is the total AE for the year? (1 mark)
781
  • What is the total Deficit for the year? (1 mark)
7
  • What is the total Surplus for the year? (1 mark)
345
 
Question 2 - worth 5 marks
Given the following depths of locations in the world’s oceans, calculate the water pressure in kg/cm2. More information on the calculations can be found in “Crunch the Numbers” found on page 332 of the textbook.  (1 mark for each location).
  • Puerto Rico Trench (located between the Caribean Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) – depth of 8648 m
864.8 kg/cm2
  • Litke Deep (located in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean) – depth of 5450 m
545 kg/cm2
  • Halocline of the tropical ocean – depth of 1000 m
100 kg/cm2
  • Mesopelagic zone – depth of 250 m
25 kg/cm2
  • Depth of penetration of red wavelengths – depth of 20 m
2 kg/cm2
 
 
Question 3 - worth 10 marks
Table 3.2 lists the annual altitude of the equilibrium line for the Devon Island glacier in Canada.  For this data, answer the following:
  • calculate the annual retreat or advancement of the equilibrium line.  Positive values indicate advancement and negative retreat of the glacier.  Present the data in a table. (4 marks)
 
Table 3.2.  Equilibrium line altitude for the Devon Island Glacier from 1961 to 1998. 
Year ELA Change in ELA Status
1961 1323 NA NA
1962 1510 187 advancement
1963 744 -766 retreat
1964 610 -134 retreat
1965 700 90 advancement
1966 1230 530 advancement
1967 1100 -130 retreat
1968 1253 153 advancement
1969 1368 115 advancement
1970 910 -458 retreat
1971 1167 257 advancement
1972 920 -247 retreat
1973 1200 280 advancement
1974 1199 -1 retreat
1975 1092 -107 retreat
1976 579 -513 retreat
1977 1360 781 advancement
1978 1000 -360 retreat
1979 920 -80 retreat
1980 1130 210 advancement
1981 1300 170 advancement
1982 1240 -60 retreat
1983 840 -400 retreat
1984 1140 300 advancement
1985 1220 80 advancement
1986 670 -550 retreat
1987 900 230 advancement
1988 1265 365 advancement
1989 1140 -125 retreat
1990 1220 80 advancement
1991 1270 50 advancement
1992 825 -445 retreat
1993 1150 325 advancement
1994 1025 -125 retreat
1995 1143 118 advancement
1996 1280 137 advancement
1997 1093 -187 retreat
1998 1300 207 advancement
 
 
 
  • describe the overall pattern(s) of the change in the glacier.  Make sure to relate the change in the equilibrium line to potential changes in the zone of ablation and accumulation (3 marks)
 
The equilibrium line is the boundary of ablation and accumulation zones, above the line is accumulation zone where the snowfall rate is greater than melt rate, and below the line is ablation zone where the melt rate is greater than snowfall rate. When the change in ELA is positive, it indicates advancement, which may suggest that the accumulation zone is reduced, vice versa, when the change in ELA is negative, it indicates retreat, which may suggest that the accumulation zone is increased. However, the ablation zone not only depends on ELA, but also depends on the movement of the glacier’s toe. Therefore, table 3.2 doesn't show the status of glacier, retreat or advancement.
In table 3.2, it reviews the immigration of the equilibrium line altitude for the Devon Island Glacier from 1961 to 1998.  From the figure below, it shows that the ELA is fluctuated around 1100m with an internal pattern of one or two years. While the tendency line shows that the ELA is increasing with a rate of around 2m per year, which means in general, the equilibrium line is advancement. Meanwhile, the ELA became less fluctuated after 1988 than before.

 
  • what are some local or global factors that might have produced the observed changes in the glacier (3 mark)
 
In large scale, the changes in ELA is mainly influenced by the global warming effect. The climate of our planet is changing continuously, our planet is kept warm due to greenhouse effect. As a result, this changing influences all around environment world widely, such as glacier melting. In general, the global glaciers has been retreated since the last small ice age, between 100 and 300 years ago, however, this melting rate suddenly accelerated in the recent century, due to a global temperature increasing by an average of 4 degree. As a result, the ELA in Devon Island advanced.
In local scale, however, its relatively high elevation and its extreme northern latitude enable the Devon Island to be less influenced by global warming effect than other places. Temperatures during the growing season seldom exceed 10 °C, and in winter can plunge to as low as 50 °C. With a polar desert ecology, Devon Island receives very little precipitation, as well as very little life activities, thus less erosion.
Question 1 - worth 13 marks
Table 3.1 presents the precipitation and evaporation data for a fictitious location called Azzoca Town.  From this data do the following:
  • Calculate the difference between precipitation (PRECIP) and potential evapotranspiration (PE) for the city listed below.  Record the plus or minus value for each moth.  January, February and June are already calculated.  Complete the remainder of the water-balance table.  (4 marks)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Precip 97 99 97 84 104 97 132 112 66 66 66 99
PE 7 8 24 57 97 132 150 133 99 55 12 7
Precip – PE +90 +91 +73 +27 +7 -35 -18 -21 -33 +11 +54 +92
Storage 100 100 100 100 100 65 47 26 0 11 65 100
Change in Storage 0 0 0 0 0 -35 -18 -21 -33 +11 +54 +35
AE 7 8 24 57 97 132 150 133 99 55 12 7
Deficit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0
Surplus 90 91 73 27 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 57
 
  • When does this city experience a net supply of water? List the months (2 marks)
January, February, March, April, May and December
  • When does this city experience a net demand for water? List the months (2 marks)
September
  • What occurs during the warm months from June through September (2 marks)
During the warm months, the potential evapotranspiration is more than precipitation, which means water losing faster than supplying. Therefore the storage cannot remain saturated and it starts to be extracted in June. This status retains in the following months. Finally, in September, the storage is out of stock and the Deficit shows a number of 7 in this month.
  • What is the total AE for the year? (1 mark)
781
  • What is the total Deficit for the year? (1 mark)
7
  • What is the total Surplus for the year? (1 mark)
345
 
Question 2 - worth 5 marks
Given the following depths of locations in the world’s oceans, calculate the water pressure in kg/cm2. More information on the calculations can be found in “Crunch the Numbers” found on page 332 of the textbook.  (1 mark for each location).
  • Puerto Rico Trench (located between the Caribean Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) – depth of 8648 m
864.8 kg/cm2
  • Litke Deep (located in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean) – depth of 5450 m
545 kg/cm2
  • Halocline of the tropical ocean – depth of 1000 m
100 kg/cm2
  • Mesopelagic zone – depth of 250 m
25 kg/cm2
  • Depth of penetration of red wavelengths – depth of 20 m
2 kg/cm2
 
 
Question 3 - worth 10 marks
Table 3.2 lists the annual altitude of the equilibrium line for the Devon Island glacier in Canada.  For this data, answer the following:
  • calculate the annual retreat or advancement of the equilibrium line.  Positive values indicate advancement and negative retreat of the glacier.  Present the data in a table. (4 marks)
 
Table 3.2.  Equilibrium line altitude for the Devon Island Glacier from 1961 to 1998. 
Year ELA Change in ELA Status
1961 1323 NA NA
1962 1510 187 advancement
1963 744 -766 retreat
1964 610 -134 retreat
1965 700 90 advancement
1966 1230 530 advancement
1967 1100 -130 retreat
1968 1253 153 advancement
1969 1368 115 advancement
1970 910 -458 retreat
1971 1167 257 advancement
1972 920 -247 retreat
1973 1200 280 advancement
1974 1199 -1 retreat
1975 1092 -107 retreat
1976 579 -513 retreat
1977 1360 781 advancement
1978 1000 -360 retreat
1979 920 -80 retreat
1980 1130 210 advancement
1981 1300 170 advancement
1982 1240 -60 retreat
1983 840 -400 retreat
1984 1140 300 advancement
1985 1220 80 advancement
1986 670 -550 retreat
1987 900 230 advancement
1988 1265 365 advancement
1989 1140 -125 retreat
1990 1220 80 advancement
1991 1270 50 advancement
1992 825 -445 retreat
1993 1150 325 advancement
1994 1025 -125 retreat
1995 1143 118 advancement
1996 1280 137 advancement
1997 1093 -187 retreat
1998 1300 207 advancement
 
 
 
  • describe the overall pattern(s) of the change in the glacier.  Make sure to relate the change in the equilibrium line to potential changes in the zone of ablation and accumulation (3 marks)
 
The equilibrium line is the boundary of ablation and accumulation zones, above the line is accumulation zone where the snowfall rate is greater than melt rate, and below the line is ablation zone where the melt rate is greater than snowfall rate. When the change in ELA is positive, it indicates advancement, which may suggest that the accumulation zone is reduced, vice versa, when the change in ELA is negative, it indicates retreat, which may suggest that the accumulation zone is increased. However, the ablation zone not only depends on ELA, but also depends on the movement of the glacier’s toe. Therefore, table 3.2 doesn't show the status of glacier, retreat or advancement.
In table 3.2, it reviews the immigration of the equilibrium line altitude for the Devon Island Glacier from 1961 to 1998.  From the figure below, it shows that the ELA is fluctuated around 1100m with an internal pattern of one or two years. While the tendency line shows that the ELA is increasing with a rate of around 2m per year, which means in general, the equilibrium line is advancement. Meanwhile, the ELA became less fluctuated after 1988 than before.

 
  • what are some local or global factors that might have produced the observed changes in the glacier (3 mark)
 
In large scale, the changes in ELA is mainly influenced by the global warming effect. The climate of our planet is changing continuously, our planet is kept warm due to greenhouse effect. As a result, this changing influences all around environment world widely, such as glacier melting. In general, the global glaciers has been retreated since the last small ice age, between 100 and 300 years ago, however, this melting rate suddenly accelerated in the recent century, due to a global temperature increasing by an average of 4 degree. As a result, the ELA in Devon Island advanced.
In local scale, however, its relatively high elevation and its extreme northern latitude enable the Devon Island to be less influenced by global warming effect than other places. Temperatures during the growing season seldom exceed 10 °C, and in winter can plunge to as low as 50 °C. With a polar desert ecology, Devon Island receives very little precipitation, as well as very little life activities, thus less erosion.
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